Sabtu, 28 November 2009

No Change in Climate Diplomacy

NO CHANGE IN CLIMATE DIPLOMACY

by. Agung Wardana


With SBY’s second term under way, public expectations are high that his new team will bring work for a wealthy and just society. As a start, the government has made a growth target of 7 percent level and is pushing infrastructure projects massively. Natural this implies more investment, more land conversion, more displacement, more pollution, etc.


A development paradigm based on growth sounds like the only way although we have to pay with environmental degradations and social conflict for livelihoods. Environment, in term of natural resources, is the main menu to invite investors to come, and more than four decades this paradigm has been implemented in this country. Thus, day to day, our local is made more hvulnerable by the business as usual model of development.


Local vulnerabilities, created by over exploitation of natural resources, will become worse by global vulnerabilities that caused by climate change, the biggest environmental problem facing human life today. Indonesia, geographically the biggest archipelago and economically developing country, is one of most the vulnerable country from climate change impacts, especially sea level rise, changing climate pattern, and rising temperature.


A systematic and extraordinary action is needed to survive from the catastrophe. Otherwise, only a few people who has access to power can be exist, and the rest can not adapt with this most challenging moment in human history. The powerless peoples in society will suffer most from the impacts of climate change. Fishermen, for instance, have no money to move to the safer place because their livelihood will be underwater. Peasants, getting hard to get water for irrigation, is being confused by the climate pattern as the result they lost the harvest and turn to be more poor, and it will cause food insecurity.


However, climate change is not only environmental problem, assumed that can be addressed in technical manner, but also a humanity issues that driven by global development model. Thus, it is required to deal with this problem in politics, human rights, and justice perspective both in global and local context. We need a government, especially Minister of Environment, that can consolidate inter-sector in government departments to address climate change.


Surprisingly, Gusti Muhammad Hatta was elected as State Minister for Environment replacing Rahmat Witoelar. He promised to put climate change in his priority action during his first 100-days program (The Jakarta Post, October 24, 2009). This political decision, made by SBY, indicates that putting forestry as the core of climate diplomacy in order to rising money from developed countries. Reduction Emission From Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Developing Countries (REDD), proposed by forest owner developing countries including Indonesia, is growing rapidly as the mechanism to help developed countries to meet their commitment by carbon offsetting that will be decided in COP 15 Copenhagen, next December.


At least, there are two reasons why Gusti Muhammad Hatta be the guy who in-charge in the forest-based climate diplomacy. First, he is well known as an expert in forestry sector, and he also involved in CIFOR, REDD proposing actor. Second, he comes from Kalimantan (Borneo), projected as the center of REDD in Borneo that is the most sexiest place for carbon agent to invest their money under flag “Saving Lung Of The World.” A lot amount of money has been calculated on paper in REDD proposals. Thus, we can see that the decision, made by SBY, seems like a logrolling for REDD proposing actor, and put a friendly guy to greet carbon agents coming.


When give a speech in G20 forum, SBY announced that Indonesia will reduce the emissions to 26 % by 2020, and will switch Indonesian forest from a net source of carbon emission to being a carbon sink by 2030. In general, by 2050, Indonesia will cut emission up to 1 billion tons of carbon. These targets seem like too good to be true if we compare with other pledges made by SBY, in different moment, that government will increase crude palm oil (CPO) production around 40 million tons in 2030. According to WALHI, in East Kalimantan alone, government plans to switch around 1,3 million hectares of natural forest for palm oil plantation and mine. As we know, one of the main causes of Indonesian deforestation is expansion of palm oil plantation on natural forests.


Not yet clear with legal basis of emission reduction in forestry sector, namely REDD, Indonesian Government jumped to other sector which is fishery and marine sector. After World Ocean Conference (WOC), Indonesia started to talk about absorbing carbon in the ocean. Similarly with REDD, the Indonesia government calls for aids from developed countries for conserving coral reef and ocean under recommendation called Blue Carbon Fund. In contrast, tourism sector pushes the expansion of tourism industries in small islands and start to block the beautiful beaches for the tourists. Protecting the forest and the ocean in one hand, at the same time, pushing expansion of palm oil plantation and tourism industries in the other hand, is it possible? Or it is such a hypocrisy in the development models of Indonesia based on where the money goes?


Actually, with or without money from developed countries, forest and ocean should be protected by government as its obligation. There is a pessimism in term of sustainability of protecting the forest if it is based-on economic interest of REDD that is driven by carbon trading mechanism. A fluctuating carbon market price will be influenced the will of the projects. If the price decreases, we do not want to hear that forests have been converted with reason because of forests are not marketable anymore, or have been burned in order to stimulate investors to increase the price of the credits.


Instead of economic-based diplomacy, the next regime should be using justice-based diplomacy to ask the responsibilities of developed countries to cut their emission at least 45 % below 1990 level by 2020, and to compensate the most vulnerable developing countries. We do not have to repeat the failures of market-based mechanism in order to address climate change problems. As we can see, there is no significant emission cut made by developed countries in the first Kyoto commitment. Thus, change the climate diplomacy otherwise mostly powerless peoples will act more than we can imagine!


Agung Wardana is executive director of the Bali chapter of Walhi (Friends of the Earth Indonesia)

Selasa, 24 November 2009

Nusa Lembongan

Pulau Kecil, Pariwisata dan Perubahan Iklim

oleh:

Agung Wardana


Nusa Lembongan, Kabupaten Klungkung, Bali dengan cepat menjadi sorotan dunia dalam beberapa hari belakangan ini karena menjadi salah satu tempat pengambilan gambar film Eat, Pray, Love. Film yang dibintangi oleh Julia Robert ini, diangkat dari buku berjudul sama karya Elizabeth Gilbert, diprediksi akan booming mengikuti bukunya yang telah jadi best seller pada 2006.

Nusa Lembongan, yang dipromisikan secara tidak langsung oleh film tersebut, juga akan booming menjadi salah satu tempat pariwisata utama menggeser Pulau Bali mengalami kejenuhan. Mengingat banyak turis yang mulai mencari kawasan yang terpencil, eksotis dan tentu saja bir murah. Sebagai dampak dari ketidaknyaman yang dirasakan para turis dengan kroditnya tempat wisata lama seperti Kuta, Sanur, Nusa Dua.

Namun dibalik hiruk pikuk pengambilan gambar film dan prediksi booming-nya pariwisata di pulau kecil ini, tidak banyak yang tahu apa yang sedang dihadapi pulau ini. Sebagai sebuah pulau kecil yang memiliki daya tampun dan daya dukung terbatas, Nusa Lembongan menghadapi dua jenis ancaman sekaligus. Pertama, ancaman kerentanan di tingkat lokal, dari segi ekonomi, sosial dan lingkungan, dan kedua adalah ancaman kerentanan di tingkat global, yakni dampak perubahan iklim.

Pertemuan Kerentanan Global dan Lokal
Pulau kecil dengan luas 8 km persegi dan berpenduduk kurang lebih lima ribu orang ini terbagi dalam dua Desa Jungut Batu dan Desa Lembongan. Secara geografis, Nusa Lembongan merupakan kawasan yang kering dengan curah hujan yang jarang. Kontur lahannya berbentuk perbukitan dengan sebagian besar merupakan karang dan tidak meliki sungai, sehingga membuat kawasan ini tidak dapat ditanami segala jenis tanaman.

Secara demografis, sebagian besar penduduknya bekerja sebagai petani rumput laut dan tegalan lahan kering. Sebelum Revolusi Hijau, makanan pokok penduduk Nusa Lemobongan adalah singkong, namun setelah itu penduduk mulai terbiasa untuk mengkonsumsi beras. Dengan demikian, Nusa Lembongan menggantungkan suplai beras, dan sembilan bahan pokok (sembako) lainnya dari Bali daratan.

Kerentanan sosial pulau ini dapat dilihat dari minimnya infrasturktur layanan sosial dasar di Nusa Lembongan, seperti pendidikan dan kesehatan. Sekolah SMA, misalnya, hanya ada 1 sekolah dan saat ini justru sedang dalam sengketa antara pihak yayasan dengan pemilik lahan. Sekolah satu-satunya pun disegel dengan jalan menembok gerbang masuk sehingga anak-anak tidak dapat bersekolah. Begitu juga dengan infrastruktur kesehatan yang tersedia juga masih terbatas.

Disisi yang lain, melalui penelitian yang dilakukan oleh Bali Kolaborasi untuk Perubahan Iklim bersama Peneliti Muda Lembongan, ditemukan bahwa dampak perubahan iklim semakin nyata di pulau ini. Kenaikan permukaan air laut terjadi perlahan namun pasti menggerus kawasan pesisir sehingga terabrasi dan mengecil. Permasalahan dasar lainnya adalah kesulitan air minum sehingga memaksa masyarakat maupun hotel-hotel mengkonsumsi air minum kemasan yang disuplai dari Bali. Dampaknya, sampah botol air dalam kemasan di tambah sampah plastik menjadi ongkokan sampah di sudut-sudut desa.

Kenaikan suhu air laut dan tidak menentunya cuaca, menyebabkan penurunan penghasilan petani rumput laut. Karena rumput laut adalah spesies tanaman yang sensisitf terhadap prubahan suhu, belum lagi dengan penyakit tanaman ice-ice yang selalu saja datang. Terumbu karang juga menghadapi pemutihan, badai tengah laut semakin sering menyulitkan nelayan untuk menangkap ikan. Selain itu, juga mengganggu jalur transpotasi laut yang merupakan satu-satunya sarana tersedia untuk menghubungkan Nusa Lembongan dengan Bali dan Nusa Penida.

Kerentanan-kerentanan diatas akan diperburuk oleh pariwisata massal yang semakin masif mengikuti booming film Eat, Pray, Love sebagaimana prediksi. Turunnyanya tentu saja ekspansi arus investasi dalam rangka pengembangan infrastruktur pariwisata massal di pulau itu. Pada gilirannya, akan menggusur sumber kehidupan rakyat akibat pengkaplingan oleh investor dalam mengakumulasi modal di industri pariwisata massal.

Adakah Pemerintah Melakukan Sesuatu?
Marjinal dari segi letak geografis karena terpisah dari daratan utama (mainland) Bali, Nusa Lembongan juga marjinal dari perhatian dalam segi program pembangunan pemerintah. Pendekatan Bali-sentris dan bias dataran membuat Nusa Lembongan tertati-tatih mengatasi ancaman lokal maupun global yang dihadapinya. Selain itu, pemerintah nampaknya juga tidak mampu membaca ancaman dampak perubahan iklim di Nusa Lembongan.

Jika dilihat dari pelepasan emisi gas rumah kaca, maka kontribusi Nusa Lembongan relatif kecil. Jadi Nusa Lembongan sebenarnya merupakan korban dari dampak perubahan iklim akibat dari model pembangunan pariwisata Bali yang intensif-karbon. Penerbangan, aktivitas dan mobilitas dalam berwisata, konsumsi sumber daya alam, dan sampah yang dihasilkan pariwisata Bali berkontribusi besar dalam pelepasan emisi karbon ke atmosfir sebagai penyebab perubahan iklim.

Ketidakadilan iklim juga terjadi dalam konteks lokal, sehingga Bali haruslah bertanggung jawab untuk meningkatkan kapasitas Nusa Lembongan. Respon untuk mendorong pembangunan berkelanjutan dari pemerintah kabupaten, provinsi maupun nasional sangat dibutukan segera dalam membantu Nusa Lembongan beradaptasi dari perubahan yang terjadi dan meningkatkan resiliensi rakyat. Lakukan sesuatu sebelum Nusa Lembongan menuntut keadilan kepada kita yang tinggal di daratan Bali.


Penulis, Aktivis Keadilan Lingkungan
Pendamping Peneliti Muda Lembongan